Read the text and circle T for True or F for False
A Penthouse With a View
A penthouse is an apartment only few people can afford. It's a flat located at the top of a really tall building, with a beathtaking view of the city. Customers with an average salary can just dream of it. Prosperous companies are ready to pay astronomical prices for such a representative and attractive location.

And of all cities, London seems to be the kingdom of penthouses. About a decade age, these extravagant apartments were almost impossible to buy. After all, the number of top-floor flats is limited, especially the ones situated in the most desrable places.

Annika and Hakan Olsson, the husband-and-wife engineers from Sweden, noticed this promising niche on the London market. and they managed to break the impasse. Instead of hunting for penthouses that were hardly available nayway, they decided to put new constructions on top of the existing buildings. This simple idea turned out to be revolutionary.

Of course, the Olssons' apartments are not constructed on rooftops. Noise and dust are out of the question in areas that are already inhabited. To avoid conflict with both residents and authorities, the Olssons decided on ready-made buildings. the penthouses are produced at a Swedish factory that also make outlets for McDonald's. They are shipped to London and lifted to a prepared landing spot on the roof.

Once this ctructure reaches the rooftop, finishin touches may still take a couple of weeks, but this phase is not even hals as noisy and messy as the construction itself. Penthouse exteriors are matched to the shape of the roof. Workers have to operate among the existing limitations, sucha as chimneys, lift shafts and pipes.

The inside of the apartments is usually simple and minimalist - white walls and high-quality wood floors. It's a style the Olssons decided to import from Sweden. It is particularly popular with international buyers, who are not crazy about traditional English interiors. The fact that these penthouses are brand-new ia a real advantage. After all, London buildings are well-known for their outdated installations.

Individual buyers range from young professionals working in the City, to older couples ready to trade their big houses for the great secruity of a penthouse. Well-paid international businesspeople treat a penthouse as a good investment. Corporations, on the other hand, look for particularly large penthouses located in the most attractive places, with a view that takes your breath away.

Mr. Olsson, who runs the business side of the project, isn't planning mass production. Although he is investigating possibilities in New York, he says the company will never do more than 30 penthouses a year. He wants to sell top-quality products in the best areas of the city.

Mr. Olsson is not too worried about any direct competition in the penthouse niche. "I used to think that sooner or later we would have competitors, but now I'm sure it is so technically complicated that they would have to be as crazy as we are. And that would be hard to achieve", he laughs.
1. The Olssons atarted from selling the existing penthouses.
2. Penthouses are constructed in England.
3. Finishing a penthouse is noiser than its construction.
4. Simple interiors are favoured by foreigners.
5. Penthouses are popular with individual clients and companies.
6. Mr Olsson thikns of entering the American market.
7. Mr Olsson thikns he will soon have a competition.
Read the texts and choose the best answer A, B or C
The Surgeon Who Wasn't
On 25 July 1865 the military surgeon James Barry, who served as a British Army doctor in garrisons across the empire for 46 years, died.The physician made a name in military circles as a passionate reformer who improved the health of soldiers and civilians alike. Soon after his death Dr Barry became the most talked-about doctor in history for a completely different reason. It was discovered that the doctor was ... a true female. But was he really a she? And if so, who was she and how had she kept her secret for so long? Despite 140 years of speculation, the truth about Barry proved unclear for a long time. However recently, a retired urologist Michael du Preez announced he had uncovered the secret.

We know from old photographs and letters written by work colleagues that the short doctor of delicate build, curly fair hair and squeaky voice presented some female features. If he truly was a she, then a girl had posed as a young man long enough to finish medical training, making her the first medically qualified woman in the UK. Moreover, she fooled the army into employing her and kept her sex secret for almost half a century. Horrified by that, army officials locked away Barry's service records for a hundred years and hoped the story would remain secret. And so it did for some time.

However, in the 1950s, historian Isobel Rae persuaded the army to open up Barry's records. From those documents, she created a detailed picture of the doctor's career. Rae found out that Barry was a woman and probably a niece of James Barry, the celebrated Irish artist. But without proof of the girl's identity, the question of Barry's sex was still unclear. One recent theory states that Barry was born genetically male, although the height and body build suggest something else.

Not long ago the amateur researcher, Michale du Preez, deicded to solve the mystery of Dr Barry once and for all. The early investigators had searched medical archives only, while their followers focused on the military ones. Neither of the two offered satisfying information. So du Preez tried a new tactic: if Dr Barry was a close relative of James Barry, the artist, then papers linked to the artist's family might provide some leads. Soon he found among a large collection of letters, accounts and legal documents, conclusive evidence of Dr Barry's identity and new facts that helped him reconstruct much of the doctor's early life.

According to du Preez’s discoveries, Barry started life in Ireland as Margaret Ann Bulkley. The family documents also describe a conspiracy between Margaret's mother and some of her uncle's influential and liberal-minded friends. Its aim was to get the girl through medical school and we learn about that from the artist's diary. Surprisingly, the solid proof of identity is not obvious from the medical school records, as we might think, but from about two dozen letters. Some of them were written by teenaged Margaret and some by Barry the student doctor. Alison Reboul, an expert on document analysis with the UK’s Forensic Science Service confirmed that all letters were written by the same person.

So what was the story? In 1803, Margaret's father was jailed for debt, leaving his wife and daughter in financial problems. They appealed to their famous relative, Barry the artist for help. He and his friends were supporters of women's education and agreed to promote the girl's study. Soon Barry died suddenly, leaving Margaret his money which allowed the girl and her mother to move to London. There Margaret had individual lessons for the next three years. It is unclear when the plan to educate Margaret became a plot to make her a doctor. But the key fact was that she was promised a physician’s job in Venezuela by one of her dead uncle’s enlightened friends - General Miranda. The only difficulty was that no British medical school admitted women. If Margaret was to qualify as a doctor, she would have to masquerade as a boy for some time. This caused the identity change into James Barry.

After three years of university study in Edinburgh Margaret, now known as James Barry, graduated in 1812. It took her another six months to train as a pupil at St Thomas' Hospital in London, after which she joined the army. It was a tough choice for someone with such a secret to hide. But Barry's options were limited: General Miranda, one of Margaret's mentors, was unexpectedly killed in a political conflict in Venezuela. There was no longer a chance of a physician’s job for her there. If Margaret had come clean and said she was a woman, she couldn't have done anything in Britain. The army was actively seeking doctors, so she chose the army where she served successfully for many years to come.
8. Michael du Preez made a discovery about Dr Barry’s ...
9. The military authorities kept the story secret because they ...
10. In the 1950s ...
11. The source of information du Preez focused on was ...
12. The final proof of Dr. Barry's identity was found in ...
13. Margaret decided to study medicine because ...
14. The identity change continued because it was ...
In this task six phrases have been removed from the text and placed at the bottom. An extra phrase has been included. You must decide which phrase goes into which gap and write the letter in the box below the sentences.
Hacked Off
They are an enemy without a physical presence, but can strike without warning. Their silent attacks could potentially paralyse armed forces. Hackers are becoming a real threat, and one which is getting stronger all the time. However, anyone who tries to break through the UK's defence networks will have to fight against an army of experts. “The situation is moving all the time ... (1) ..." says Lt Col Ian Dodeswell, head of the Joint Security Coordination Centre (JSyCC). "So we have to be on our guard, making sure that we are covered against all known threats.

"But the real concern for us is what we call Zero Day Exploits - something that we really cannot predict. Our systems are well protected, but that doesn't mean that there aren't people out there ... (2) ... " After 9/11 it became clear that computer systems could be a terrorist target. Everybody understood that army networks could be the source of priceless information. If that information was not secured, it could be fatal.

Lt Col Dodeswell admits that military IT systems find themselves in danger more and more often. "As soon as we provide the right security software, ... (3) .... The average time gap between these two events used to be 331 days. Now it’s just six."

The risk of virus attacks in Iraq and Afghanistan is as high as in the UK. Another key defence against hackers are the front line troops which are constantly warned not to ignore anything suspicious. "We are trying to keep our eyes open," Dodeswell says. "And users are the best defence - the people... (4) ...

Coordinating the defence against cyber threats is one part of the job. Knowing the enemy is another. Experts keep monitoring websites used by hackers ... (5) .... Both can be decisive when a crisis strikes. There is one department that concentrates only on hacker methodologies. Psychological expertise is as important in this kind of job as knowledge of Information Technology. Obviously ... (6) ... Understanding these motives is the key to success.
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