Read the text and circle T for True or F for False
Since childhood Elon Musk had a dream which later on has become a goal in his life. He wanted to make it possible for people to explore the outer space and travel to the mysterious red planet – Mars. The determined visionary and creative businessman of South African origin became a billionaire in his twenties thanks to the success of computer company Zip2 (an online city guide), followed by X.com, known today as PayPal. The money he earned allowed Musk to invest in new enterprises such as SpaceX and Tesla Motors.

Space Exploration Technologies Corp., trading as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in California. It was founded in 2002 by Elon Musk with the top goal of reducing space transportation costs to enable cheaper cargo flights. This would later allow commercial space travel for tourists, and in the future the colonization of Mars.

SpaceX company introduced technologically advanced solutions right from the start. Instead of launching single satellites they offered the Starlink satellite constellation, a broadband internet system to meet the needs of consumers across the globe. By 2008, SpaceX was well established, and the same year the NASA agency awarded the company the contract to handle cargo transport for the International Space Station (ISS). The future plans also included astronaut transport, in a move to replace NASA’s own space shuttle missions.

After NASA’s Shuttle Space Programme finished as planned in 2011, for several years the USA had to rely on Russian rockets to deliver its supplies and people to the ISS in the orbit. It was costly and humiliating for the nation that had sent the first men to the Moon. But it was also a great business opportunity for SpaceX and Musk has made the best of it.

On May 22, 2012 SpaceX made history when the company launched its Falcon 9 rocket into space with an unmanned capsule. The space vehicle was sent to the ISS with 1,000 pounds of supplies for the astronauts stationed there. It was the first time a private company sent a spacecraft to the International Space Station. Since then SpaceX has flown over 20 cargo resupply missions to the ISS under a partnership with NASA. It has been possible because unlike other rockets its spacecraft is reusable and therefore much more economical.

For years the company staff have been working on spacecraft which would allow sending people safely into space. On May 30, 2020 SpaceX was the first private company to send two astronauts Robert Behnken and Douglas Hurley to the ISS on board SpaceX Crew Dragon 2. Both men, experienced military pilots and NASA astronauts, were to test the spacecraft capabilities. Their mission was a successful one and marks a new opening in the company’s operations. Happy and proud Elon Musk promises this is the beginning of space travel and believes SpaceX commercial flights for tourists and a manned mission to Mars may happen sooner than we expect.
1. Elon Musk made a fortune because of his success in the IT industry
2. The first aim of SpaceX business activity was to develop space tourism
3. The Starlink consists of many satellites that operate together
4. The 2008 contract included delivery of supplies and personnel
5. The Americans used Russian rockets for economic reasons
6. SpaceX rockets can make multiple travels into space
7. Elon Musk believes the latest mission is the start of commercial flights
Read the texts and choose the best answer A, B or C
The Falklands crisis
When I visit Ushuaia, a little Patagonian town, I always take coffee with a very special friend. He says he is an academic now, but his military stance reminds everyone that he was once a full captain in the Argentine navy. His name is Juan Grieco, and 40 years ago, he locked me in a cell for long 8 weeks.

Back in 1982 I had been working in India as a journalist when the call came from the Sunday Times foreign desk in London. They asked me to return home immediately because something had come up. I flew home that night, thinking that my expenses, the curse of any correspondent, had caused some problems. But it turned out to be something entirely different.

My editor told me of a developing story about Argentine and British warships manoeuvring against each other on the seas a few miles off a British-claimed island called South Georgia. The story had not been covered in the Indian press and so it was quite new to me. It now seemed possible that the long argument over who controlled the Falkland Islands might finally get out of control. The paper wanted me to go to the islands in case a conflict started. For me it was a perfect story. A small war in a British place was guaranteed to be on the front page. So I flew to Buenos Aires that afternoon.

The only person I knew in town was a spy I had gone to school with. He worked undercover in the British Embassy. I only had one question for him: “Can I get to the Falklands?” He looked at me curiously. “Get to the islands? Yes. But you might have problems getting back." That was the signal I needed. The Argentines were going to invade, and he knew it. Obviously, so did other British diplomats.

The next day I flew down to the Falkland capital of Port Stanley. Two days later I watched with fascination as the Argentine soldiers landed on the beach. After a short fight with the British Royal Marines, which left some Argentina's troops dead on the beach, the Argentine soldiers took control over the islands. They raised their flag over the territory which had been British for the previous 150 years.

The new authorities quickly forced the British governor and the Royal Marines to leave the islands. But they let me stay, mainly because my firsthand reports were useful. There was no violence, and they wanted somebody to report this peaceful behaviour abroad. The invader-commanders thought it was good for their image. But it did not last long. After three days, they ordered me to leave.

I returned to Buenos Aires, where I saw Gen. Leopoldo Galtieri who had prepared the invasion plan. When I asked him if an English reporter could still write about his country, he said: “You can go anywhere, write anything you want. This is a free country."

After my interview with Galtieri, I told my two colleagues, a reporter for the London Observer, and his photographer, that we could travel around the country. We decided to go round Argentina to examine war preparations. We wanted to look at every military base, every ship, every squadron of aircraft, to show our readers what the British armada would confront.

Two days later, we were in Ushuaia. As we had enough film and information about how the nation was readying for battle, we wanted to fly back to Buenos Aires. Unfortunately, it did not happen. At the airport three heavily armed sailors approached us. They said we were under arrest and took us to a police station. We were interrogated, charged with espionage, and sentenced to an indefinite period of detention in the city jail. Then we met Juan Grieco, a navy captain. He escorted us into the cells and locked the doors behind us.

Everybody tried to get us out of jail. The Swiss government, which was the official protecting power for Britons remaining in Argentina, brought some diplomatic pressure. The United Nations secretary-general complained to General Galtieri about our detention. And so did the Pope. But nothing worked. Finally 77 days after we had been arrested, the cell doors opened. British soldiers had recaptured Port Stanley. The Argentine flags came down, and the Union Jack went up. The governor returned, thousands of Argentine soldiers left, and we could finally go home.
8. 40 years ago Juan Grieco was …
9. The author was asked to return to Britain because …
10. The British Embassy in Buenos Aires …
11. During the attack …
12. The author stayed in Port Stanley because the Argentine commanders thought …
13. The reporters intended to …
14. The reporters were released after …
In this task six phrases have been removed from the text and placed at the bottom. An extra phrase has been included. You must decide which phrase goes into which gap and write the letter in the box below the sentences.
The battle for Idlib
The Syrian army is still better at stealing refrigerators than at fighting rebels. But after a decade of war, it seems to be learning better tactics. Instead of deploying lone tanks, some units fighting in Idlib have worked together with armoured vehicles backed by infantry. In recent days, however, black-and-white footage has shown those tanks being attacked from the front, ... (1) ... .

For a long time Bashar al-Assad’s men were fighting rebels equipped only with rifles, now they face the Turkish army, the second-largest in NATO. The clash began on February 27th when an airstrike on a Turkish convoy killed at least 36 soldiers. It is still unclear whether Syrian or Russian jets dropped the bombs, yet, Turkey decided to respond to Syria … (2) ... that dealt Assad’s regime its worst damage in years. It has also brought Turkey to the edge of conflict with Russia, Assad’s biggest foreign ally.

During the meeting of the leaders of Russia and Turkey in Moscow, president Recep Tayyip Erdogan entered with a stronger hand than he had just weeks ago. He wants … (3) ... and forcing millions of desperate refugees to cross the border. Caught between furious Erdogan and disobedient Assad, Vladimir Putin cannot offer much. He may agree with Erdogan on a new demarcation line … (4) ... . That may not speed up the peacemaking process, but may be enough to limit current fighting.

The conflict with Turkey shows the Syrian regime cannot last without Russian support. That is painful to Assad. Although there are no precise statistics on his losses, many Syrian tanks have been destroyed and hundreds of soldiers have been killed. The casualties also include members of Hezbollah, … (5) ... , and other militias backed up by Afghan and Pakistani fighters.

Turkey hit back mostly with unmanned drones, which don’t have the range of American Reapers. They fly low and slow but their fire-power is strong enough … (6) ... . Syria’s air defences, never very strong, were useless against swarms of drones orbiting over their heads. After Syrian jets shot one down, a Turkish F-16 put down two of the Syrian planes.
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